Alternate names: Kharadi, Sangar, Sangara, Manka
Alternate names: Kharadi, Sangar, Sangara, Manka
The Lodha of Maharashtra are also known as Mahalodhi or Lodhi Rajput.
They have titles, such as Thakur, Varma, Chatriya, Ganali, Panwar, jandgi and Bidra. They speak Marathi. They are vegetarian in their food habits. Their girls are tattooed at an early age on the chin and forehand. There are two subgroups among the Lodhi; one is the landholding Lodhi, who have a number of clans, such as Mahadula, Kerbamia, Dongaria, Narwaria and Bhadoria. The other subgroup is again divided into a number of subcastes. Each subcaste has exogamous surnames, like Aute, Kambale, Mehune, Khangare, Barole, Gahrole, Jangdi, Bindra, Jariya, Pawar, Gauli, Varma and Chatriya, which are territorial or titular and totemistic in nature.
The Mahalodhi consider themselves superior to the other subgroup. Parental property is inherited by the sons. The Lodhi are an important agricultural community. Their subsidiary occupations in clude animal husbandry and selling milk and milk products. A good number among them are agricultural and daily-wage labourers. They have a community association the Lodhi Kshatriya Samaj, registered at Nagpur with a branch at Watgaon. This association maintains contact with its members all over Vidharbha for the construction of dharmshalas or shelter for pilgrims, looks after the temple of Radheswami Devi, and works for their development. They are Hindu who follow the Shakti cult. Their kuldevi or household deity is goddess Sharda and their village deity is Hanuman. Being farmers, they have occupa tional linkages with the Gondor and Dhangar, while jajmani (patron-client) relationship is maintained with the Brahman. The Lodhi are moderately educated. A few are in government service. They have less access to media and communication and primary health facilities.
LODHA PEOPLE GROUP PROFILE
H. M. H. for class MAGL 5396 India and Christian Missions
January 14, 2011
Prior to the British coming to India, the Lodha people sustained themselves through hunting and gathering in the forests. “Historically, the economy of most tribes was subsistence agriculture or hunting and gathering. Tribal members traded with outsiders for the few necessities they lacked, such as salt and iron. A few local Hindu craftsmen might provide such items as cooking utensils.” (Library of Congress) Under the British Raj they were driven out of the forests thus depriving them of their sustenance and forcing them to develop new methods of supporting their families. With limited skills they turned to crime and under the Criminal Tribes Act of 1871 they were branded as a criminal tribe known as Sabars. This association and history still affects the tribe to this day. Lodha titles are Nayek, Mallick, Digar, Sardar, Bhokta, Kotal, Dandapat, Bhunya and others. (Joshua) “A number of traits have customarily been seen as establishing tribal rather than caste identity. These include language, social organization, religious affiliation, economic patterns, geographic location, and self-identification.” (Library of Congress)
According to a 2001 census the Lodha people number about 6,103,000 and are considered officially, since 1949, a Scheduled Tribe (Library of Congress) located in India (6,072,000), Nepal (30,700) and Bangladesh (40). Alternated people names associated with the Lodha people are: Balasaria, Baleshahi, Bhagat, Bhara, Gagan, Kanwan, Kawandal, Kharia, Lodhi Rajput, Mahalodhi, Mandi, Parhiar, Paihar and Radha. Using the coding mechanism developed by the World Christian Database their Ethnic Code is CNN25g meaning: Caucasian; Indo-Iranian; Brown; the next two numbers identify the ethno cultural family; and the sixth number identifies a people within the family Adivasi. (Joshua) The largest single concentrations of the Lodha (84,966) live in West Bengal and comprise 1.9 per cent of the Schedule Tribe population of West Bengal. In all of India there are 573 communities recognized by the government as Scheduled Tribes. (Elementary)
The dispersion of the Lodha people across various districts and states of India, Nepal and Bangladesh means that they use a total of 52 different languages. The top four languages uses are: Hindi; Kanauji; Awadhi; and Chhattisgarhi. Their literacy rate is 34.8 percent. “Extending the system of primary education into tribal areas and reserving places for tribal children in middle and high schools and higher education institutions are central to government policy, but efforts to improve a tribe’s educational status have had mixed results.” (Elementary) “The Constitution (86th Amendment) Act 2002, enacted in December 2002 seeks to make education free and compulsory, and a Fundamental Right for all children in the age-group 6-14 years.” (Elementary)
As a whole the Lodha people are largely un-evangelized with a majority of 99.73% Hindu and .26% Christian. (Joshua) Incorporating the Church Planting Movement and T4T within the existing Christian population might enhance the ability to bring the Gospel to these wonderful children of God.
“Elementary Education – Education – Citizens: National Portal of India.” Home: National Portal of India. Web. 13 Jan. 2011. <http://india.gov.in/citizen/primary_education.php>.
“India Country Study.” Library of Congress Home. Web. 13 Jan. 2011. <http://www.Library of Congress.gov/>.
“Joshua Project – India Ethnic People Profile.” Joshua Project – Unreached Peoples of the World. Web. 13 Jan. 2011. <http://www.joshuaproject.net/people-profile.php>.
A community of Karnataka, they have synonyms like Halepaik, Ediga
and Iliga. They claim that originally they were Banajiga, which became a
distinct community because of their profession of toddy-tapping. The
term Idiga has been derived from the Telugu word idchu, meaning to
draw. In Tamil Nadu, the Idiga are also known as Naidu, Vadugan, Ediga
Balija and Gavara. They use Naidu as their title.
Formal education is approved of by them for boys, while it is not whole
heartedly pursued by girls. T’hey use both indigenous and modern
medicines and have accepted modern methods of family planning.
Some of them have benefited from rural development and selfemployment
Agaravala – Agarwal
Forward Caste with a total Population 3 million (including Hindu and Jain).
97% Hindu and 3% Jains . Hindu Argawal are Vaisnavas (Vishnu worshipers) and vegetarians and are close in custom to Jains and can easily marry between Jain and Hindu Argawal and the wife adopts the religion of the husband.
One of the most important castes of Digambara Jains.
Further sub-divided into 18 exogamous sections – also are divided into Visa and Dasa like the Bania castes. From Agroha –believed to be decendents of King Agra Sena of Campavati in North India. His sons established Agroha in Punjab.
Bainia Jain Castes (and Argawal)
I) North India Jain Castes
These castes are mainly found in the Northern India including Gujarat, Kathiawar and upper districts of Madhya Pradesh. These castes are found in the Deccan and South India, but they have migrated there from the North for commercial purposes. The Jain castes of the North have their counterparts in other communities. Thus Argaravalas, Osavalas, Srimalis etc. are found among Hindu also. In these castes Digambara and Swetambara divisions are found. The Jain Bania Sub-Castes are divided into Visa and Dasa (except for the Khandelavala). There is a stigma to the Dasa section. It arose mainly over the issue of widow marriage. The castes in the North are rich and follow big scale commercial activities.
Osavala- Oswal – Bania sub-caste
Further sub-divided into 1444 exogamous sections
Name is derived from the town of Osiya or Osiyanagara in Marwar Rajastan.
Mostly are Swetembara Jains. Concentrated in Rajastan, Malwa, Gujarat and Kutch. Being adventurous they will be found in every major city.There are many sub-divisions of Osavala. Some divisions are named after birds and animals. Hirana sub-sect name means deer.
Srimali – Bania sub-caste
Further sub-divided into 135 exogamous sections
Caste of jain Banias
Concentrated in Gujarat, Kathiawar and Rajasthan
There are some Hindu but they are mostly Swetembara Jains. Claim the largest number among the castes following Svetamabara sect.
Name Srimali is derived from Srimala (modern Bhinmala) boarder of Marwar.
Because of their great number among Swetembara they occupay a prominent position.
Poravada- Paravada, One of the important castes of Bania Jains.
Further sub-divided into 24 exogamous sections
They are further sub-divided by their palce of residence ie. Surati, Ahamadabadi, ect. Practically all these divisions are found in Bombay city but there also they live in separate groups.
Found mainly in Marwar, Gujaratha, Kathiawar and Cutch.
Some Poravada among Hindu. Among Jains they are found in both Swetambara and Digambaras, but they are mostly Swetambaras.
Poravadas claim to have produced very capable persons most prominent among them are Vilma Saha and Vastupala and Tejapala, the well known ministers of king Vira Dhavala in the 13th century.
Khandelavala – of Bania jains
Further sub-divided into 84 exogamous sections
They are big bankers commercal magnates and land-holders.
They are found among Hindu but they are mostly jains. They are all Digambara jains. They are spread in Majasthan Malsa Maharashtra Uttar Pradesh Madhya Pradesh and Bihar, but more than three-forths are concentrated in Rajputana and Malwa.
Khandelavala take their name from a capital town in Jaipur. There were 84 towns in Khandelavala thus 84 exoamous sections.
Paravara – Bania sub-sect
Further sub-divided into 2 exogamous sections Atha Sake Paravaras and Cau Sake Paravaras.
The Paravas have an infirier division called Binaikiya, which consists of offspring of irregular unions and of widows who have remarried. Persons who have committed a caste offence is relegated to this sub-caste. The Binaikiya are gaining in number and with that social status. They have constructed some of their own temples.
They are found aming the Hindu but they are mostly Jans. They are mainly Digambar Jains. They are spread over a wide area of Madya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Rajashan, Malwa, Bihar and Bombay but they are concentrated in Madya pradesh where more than half their population resides. In Madya pradesh they are found almost intirely in Sagar, Damoha and Jabalpur districts. It seems likely that the Paravars may be identical with Poravads in which case they belong to Rajputana.
DHAKAD – POI Equivalent: DHAKAD
census year: 1931; earlier distribution: Central India Agency, Gwalior
State; present distribution: Madhya Pradesh: Bastar, Bhopal, Dhar,
Indore, Mandsaur, Morena, Raisen, Rajgarh, Ratlam, Sehore,
Shahjahanpur, Ujjain, Rajasthan: Ajmer, Bharatpur, Bundi,
Jhalawar, Kota, Tonk, Udaip’ur
DHAKAD (DHAKAR), census years: 1901, 1911, 1921; earlier
distribution: Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Central India
Agency, Madras, Rajputana Agency, Travancore, Elsewhere
The Darzi, also known as Khayyat, are tailors. The term darzi is derived from the Persian word darzan (to sew). The Darzi trace their origin from Hazrat Idris and hence they have started affixing the title Idrisi. They believe that Hazrat Idris was a teacher from whom their ancestors learnt the art of tailoring. The Darzi of Mirzapur attributes their origins to ‘Paighambar Mansoor’ who was instructed by Allah to create a group of people for sewing of cloth and save others from the cold regions.
The Darzi are endogamous. The elderly people are respected and the children loved, irrespective of sex. Joking relations are between bhabhi and devar, and with sail and bahnoi, sala and salhaj, etc. Conflicts and contradictions are generally resolved through familial compromises. Sons as well as daughters have rights of inheritance in paternal property. Eldest son gets succession.